Install MariaDB 10.9 on Debian 11 / Debian 10

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Welcome to today’s guide on how to install MariaDB 10.9 on Debian 11 / Debian 10. MariaDB is a drop-in replacement of MySQL with more features, new storage engines, and better performance. You can read more on MariaDB 10.9 features from the official website.

MariaDB 10.9 is a stable release of MariaDB as of this article update. Follow the steps below to install MariaDB on Debian 11 / Debian 10. We will add the official MariaDB apt repository, then install latest packages of MariaDB from it on our Debian system.

Step 1: Update system apt index

I recommend you update your system and optionally upgrade installed packages.

sudo apt -y update
sudo apt -y install curl software-properties-common gnupg2
sudo apt -y upgrade
sudo apt update && sudo apt -y full-upgrade

Step 2: Import MariaDB gpg key and add repository

We need to import MariaDB gpg key which contains the keys used for signing MariaDB Debian packages. Then add the MariaDB repository to your system:

curl -LsS -O https://downloads.mariadb.com/MariaDB/mariadb_repo_setup
sudo bash mariadb_repo_setup --mariadb-server-version=10.9

Confirm repository configuration is successful:

# [info] Checking for script prerequisites.
# [info] MariaDB Server version mariadb-10.9 is valid
# [info] Repository file successfully written to /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mariadb.list
# [info] Adding trusted package signing keys...
# [info] Running apt-get update...
# [info] Done adding trusted package signing keys

Step 3: Install MariaDB 10.9 on Debian 10 / Debian 11

After addition of the repository, installation of MariaDB 10.9 server and client packages can be done by running the following commands in your terminal.

sudo apt update
sudo apt install mariadb-server mariadb-client

Accept installation when prompted:

0 upgraded, 22 newly installed, 0 to remove and 0 not upgraded.
Need to get 37.5 MB of archives.
After this operation, 270 MB of additional disk space will be used.
Do you want to continue? [Y/n] y

Step 4: Secure MariaDB server

Now run the secure script to set root password, remove test database and disable remote root user login.

$ sudo mariadb-secure-installation

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and
haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none): 
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody
can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] n
Enabled successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] y
New password: 
Re-enter new password: 
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] y
 - Dropping test database...
 ... Success!
 - Removing privileges on test database...
 ... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!

You now need to provide username and password to access MySQL console. Without authentication, you’ll get access denied error.

$ mysql -u root
ERROR 1698 (28000): Access denied for user 'root'@'localhost'

Use the -p option to authenticate.

$ mysql -u root -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 34
Server version: 10.9.4-MariaDB-1:10.9.4+maria~deb11 mariadb.org binary distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2018, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> SELECT VERSION();
+-------------------------------------+
| VERSION()                           |
+-------------------------------------+
| 10.9.4-MariaDB-1:10.9.4+maria~deb11 |
+-------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.001 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> EXIT
Bye
coffee

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A systems engineer with excellent skills in systems administration, cloud computing, systems deployment, virtualization, containers, and a certified ethical hacker.